How diabetes can increase cancer risk: DNA damaged by high blood sugar

    Summary
    For years, scientists have been trying to solve a medical mystery: Why do people with diabetes have an increased risk of developing some forms of cancer? Today, researchers report a possible explanation for this double whammy. They found that DNA sustains more damage and gets fixed less often when blood sugar levels are high, thereby increasing cancer risk.

    Deducing the scale of tsunamis from the 'roundness' of deposited gravel

    Summary
    Scientists have found a link between the 'roundness' distribution of tsunami deposits and how far tsunamis reach inland. They sampled the 'roundness' of gravel from different tsunamis in Koyadori, Japan, and found a common, abrupt change in composition approximately 40% of the 'inundation distance' from the shoreline, regardless of tsunami magnitude. Estimates of ancient tsunami size from geological deposits may help inform effective disaster mitigation.

    Light-matter interaction without interference

    Summary
    Quantum dots might constitute the foundation of quantum communication. They are an efficient interface between matter and light, with photons emitted by the quantum dots transporting information across large distances. However, structures form by default during the manufacture of quantum dots that interfere with communication. Researchers have now successfully eliminated these interferences.

    Heart attack patients with mild cognitive impairment get fewer treatments

    Summary
    New research finds people with mild cognitive impairment don't always receive the same, established medical treatment that patients with normal cognitive functioning get when they have a heart attack.

    Evolution designed by parasites

    Summary
    A new paper explores an overlooked aspect of the relationship between parasites and their hosts by systematically discussing the ways in which parasitic behavior manipulation may encourage the evolution of mechanisms in the host's nervous and endocrine systems.

    Scientists say sustainable forestry organizations should lift ban on biotech trees

    Summary
    Prohibition by the Forest Stewardship Council and others has hampered research

    Top stories: manta ray ‘friendships,’ preventing suicide, and a hidden hotbed of Zika

    Summary
    This week’s top *Science* news

    Geography of loss—a global look at the uneven toll of suicide

    Summary
    As rates fall in many countries, those in the United States climb

    Promising approaches in suicide prevention, and how to retreat from climate change

    Summary
    On this week’s show: Three promising prevention strategies to save lives, and how one researcher recommends integrating relocation into our long-term climate change goals

    Bill to fight sexual harassment in universities approved by Chilean Senate

    Summary
    Proposal, inspired in part by new National Science Foundation rules, makes funding contingent on measures to keep women safe

    Unmanned Soyuz docking at International Space Station aborted; another try planned

    Summary
    An unmanned Russian Soyuz MS-14 spacecraft aborted a docking with the International Space Station and another attempted is planned no earlier than Monday, space officials said.

    NASA's Hubble captures image of dynamic star death

    Summary
    A NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image released this week was thought to be a picture of two separate objects, when in fact the objects are one star that has separated into two lobes.

    Scientists seek better understanding of mouse, human brains to improve research

    Summary
    For decades, scientists have used experimental drugs to cure mice of brain disorders like Alzheimer's disease, glioblastoma and depression. But on human brains, these treatments often don't work.

    New species of stegosaur is oldest ever found

    Summary
    The 186 million year old stegosaur, named Adratiklit boulahfa, discovered in the Middle Atlas Mountains of Morocco, is the first thyreophoran dinosaur found in North Africa.

    Florida Aquarium reproduces Atlantic coral in lab for first time

    Summary
    Scientists in Florida became the first to induce Atlantic coral reproduction in a lab setting, The Florida Aquarium announced Wednesday.

    How an old oven became a sink

    Summary
    [image: A bathroom seems like a weird place for an oven. Unless that oven... is actually a sink.] A bathroom seems like a weird place for an oven. Unless that oven... is actually a sink. (Cari Shane/) When DIY inspiration strikes, you’ve got to go with it. For me, that meant impulsively salvaging a rusty, musty, 1940s electric oven with a vague plan to turn it into a vanity and sink. It also sometimes means bringing in some help, which is how an auto mechanic ended up using body shop techniques on a kitchen appliance destined for a bathroom. My vision began to materialize when I first spotted the beat-up, creamed corn-colored electric roaster at a sprawling upcycle warehouse just over the Washington, D.C. line in Edmonton, Maryland. I was there, I thought, to find a discarded dresser that I'd paint, top with a reclaimed basin, and then plumb. Instead, I paid Community Forklift $99 for a vintage piece with some dents and a bit of rust, but also a chrome top that popped open on the first try. Inside, I found an illustrated instruction book filled with recipes and images of a proud-looking woman in a June Cleaver-like outfit—with pearls, pumps, and all—roasting meats, potatoes, and other vegetables in three separate lidded containers that fit like puzzle pieces inside the oven’s cavern. She even had an apple cobbler baking in a fourth one. When I plugged it in, the stove still worked. My first thought was to affix a basin to the chrome top; but, at 5-foot-4, I would have needed a stool to wash my hands. Plus, I wanted to be able to open and close the lid. So, I nixed that idea. Then I thought I’d put the basin inside the oven section, but when I removed all the little containers with lids, I found the basin I’d bought was too big and awkward-looking. So, I kept thinking. And then it came to me: The roasting cavern itself would be the basin. I’d be able to keep the chrome top closed and visitors would walk into my powder room to find an oven. Perfect. Not everyone took to my conversion idea with rapid applause. Even the plumber who was working on my renovated 1914 D.C. rowhouse was perplexed, likely by what I was asking him to do and because I assumed he knew how to do it. He didn’t. It was hard to find someone who did. "Hi, I'd like to turn an old electric roaster into a pretty vanity and sink. Can you help me do that?" was how I began myriad phone calls with unsuspecting tradespeople. Many went unreturned. Others ended abruptly. I even drove around with the oven in my car trunk for a few months to physically show people what I was talking about. And then I found Sarven Mermer. At 27, he'd owned his body shop, Eurowerks, for six years already. Like all the other conversations I’d had about my roaster rehab, my first chat with Mermer was also bizarre. “My initial reaction when you called me was, ‘That was an odd thing to work on,’” Mermer recalled in a recent phone conversation. We hadn’t spoken in about five years, but he remembered the lady with the oven overhaul. But Mermer quickly realized what others hadn’t—fixing my oven was like fixing a car. He approached my roaster as a mini-roadster, albeit one without wheels or an engine. “It’s the same material as a car … sheet metal. So, as long as it’s a material we can work with and we have experience with, anything can be done,” he said. “It was beat up, but it was something we could tackle.” Mermer’s attitude was exactly what I was looking for. He would be my converter. I picked “Mercedes Red” as the oven’s final color and it was off to the races. “We took it apart, piece by piece … like a beat-up car, and went to work,” recalls Mermer. “We did exactly what we would have done on a car, but we did it on an oven.” How it all came together Eurowerks first tackled the oven’s many dents, treating the appliance like a dinged-up car door. They smoothed the metal pieces with a dent puller, slathered fiberglass paste on the repaired spots, sanded them down, then primed them for painting before sanding them again. Then, they rebuilt the roaster, without its chrome top, for painting. [image: The faucet isn't part of the oven-sink, but swings out from the wall next to it.] The faucet isn't part of the oven-sink, but swings out from the wall next to it. (Cari Shane/) They put the oven in a room built to hold a truck or large SUV. Like an operating room, the space was flooded by fluorescent light. Unlike an operating room, it was sealed shut with steel doors fitted with filtration systems to help ensure that dust or other airborne particulates didn’t contaminate the paint job. The roaster looked miniscule in that great room, less than 1/16 the size of its usual occupants. “I used about the same amount of paint that’s used to paint a fender. It wasn’t much,” Mermer recalls, with a chuckle. Once the four coats of paint had dried, they really made the oven shine with a high-end clear coat specially made for European car brands. To rid the clear coat of any imperfections and create a smooth, shiny surface, they used 3,000- to 5,000-grit sandpaper—first on a power sander with water (wet sanding) and then by hand. They also polished the chrome top, which was fairly rusty, and reattached it. At this point, the oven was pretty, but I still didn’t have a sink. Mermer kept working. “Mechanical engineering is my hobby … I like bringing old stuff back to life,” he told me. “I went through some ideas and made it happen.” There were some challenges with the plumbing and how the water would drain. For one, the bottom of the oven was flat, so the water would accumulate there instead of draining as it should. Mermer removed the fire-retardant insulation from around the oven’s heating element to expose the bottom of what would become the sink—where the plumbing would go. Then, he came up with the idea to punch down the center of the roasting cavern to give it the slope necessary for water to drain. Mermer’s final job was to drill a hole so the vanity could be plumbed. He also test-fitted some piping to make sure the plumbing would actually work. It was all done in about two months, at a cost of $250. “We didn’t know how much to charge you. There was no guide,” Mermer remembers, laughing. When I brought home my funky, bright red, chrome-topped vanity and sink, all it needed was a plumber to add and seal a drain, install piping, and connect “The Little Red Roaster” to the plumbing in the wall. Of course, I also needed a faucet. It wouldn’t be part of the sink, though—I chose to put it on the side wall, out of the way so the chrome top over the basin could be opened without interruption. It’s the most basic faucet system I could find, and when it’s not in use, the fixture itself lays flush against the wall to the right side of the oven. Once visitors figure out how to open the top—I’ve provided instructions in the form of a rhyming poem on the wall nearby—they’ve simply got to swing the faucet over the basin to wash their hands. I’ve received a few criticisms from guests (and my children) “annoyed” that they had to read a poem to operate a bathroom sink. But overall, most people leave the powder room with a goofy grin, waxing “poetic” about “The Little Red Roaster" that I did invent.

    Why you might want to sign up for YouTube Premium

    Summary
    [image: That little play button in the middle is part of the image. Don't click it. You're welcome.] That little play button in the middle is part of the image. Don't click it. You're welcome. (Szabo Viktor via Unsplash/) Adding YouTube Premium to your growing list of digital subscriptions might have never crossed your mind. After all, YouTube already lets you watch millions of videos and upload as many videos as you want without paying a dime. Ever. So why buy the cow when you’re already getting the milk for free? That’s a particularly important question now that YouTube’s premium content initiative, YouTube Originals, has fizzled out. But if you’re the kind of person who gets sucked into a YouTube vortex more than once a week, there are compelling reasons for you to invest $12 a month. No ads, ever [image: Never again miss Lionel Messi's magical footwork because of a filthy ad.] Never again miss Lionel Messi's magical footwork because of a filthy ad. (David Nield/) It's easy enough to avoid YouTube's ads—those that can be skipped and closed, anyway—and considering you get free access to more videos than it's humanly possible to watch in a lifetime, sitting through a few ads seems like a decent trade-off. But getting rid of all the ads on desktop and mobile makes more of a difference than you might think. If you regularly get lost watching YouTube videos, think about how much time you spend waiting for the *Skip* button to appear, or just sitting through an ad you're not interested in. You might have become numb to it by now, but that time adds up. Say you're sitting through three minutes of YouTube video adverts a day—that's 90 minutes wasted each month, which might be worth $12 of your hard-earned cash. Or if you're taking advantage of one of YouTube's endless music mixes (those *Mix* links that appear in the sidebar), think about how regularly a 30-second trailer for the latest Hollywood reboot kills the vibe. Download videos and watch them offline [image: All those videos you saved for later during work hours? Watch them seamlessly on your subway commute.] All those videos you saved for later during work hours? Watch them seamlessly on your subway commute. (David Nield/) The number of hits you get when you run a web search for "download YouTube videos" is a testament to how many of us want to save clips to watch offline. Maybe you're traveling and need something to help you pass the time. Maybe you're on a data diet, or you want to watch a film outside but your home Wi-Fi doesn't reach (in which case, this might help). Subscribing to YouTube Premium will allow you to save as many videos as you want to phones and tablets to watch anywhere, and you'll see *Download* buttons under clips while they're playing. You'll also find the option in the three-dot menu when videos appear in search results or while browsing through clips. To see all the videos you've saved, tap *Library*, then *Downloads*. To set the quality of downloaded videos (and how much room they take up on your device), tap your avatar in the top right, then *Settings*, and *Background and downloads*. Keep in mind some features—like commenting and liking videos—won't be there while you're offline, and even though YouTube doesn't limit the number of clips you can download, you must go online at least once every 30 days if you don't want them to disappear. It includes YouTube Music [image: Get YouTube Music as part of the deal.] Get YouTube Music as part of the deal. (YouTube/) Although it doesn't have all the features of Spotify and Apple Music, or connect to as many different hardware devices and third-party apps, YouTube Music is an acceptable basic music streaming service. Plus, it’s included as part of your YouTube Premium subscription. Where YouTube Music really stands out, though, is in the variety of its content. It’s got lots and lots of music videos, plus clips of live performances and rare recordings that you won't find on competing services. Another feature that sets YouTube Music apart is the *Your mixtape* playlist, which uses YouTube's algorithms to put together an endless stream of tunes you're likely to be into—both stuff you've heard and jams you had no idea existed. YouTube Music is available on the web, and on Android and iOS. Keep videos playing in the background [image: YouTube Premium allows background playback, so your ASMR video won't stop when you navigate away to read the news. Gotta stay calm.] YouTube Premium allows background playback, so your ASMR video won't stop when you navigate away to read the news. Gotta stay calm. (David Nield/) When using the traditional YouTube app on Android and iOS, videos stop playing when you switch to something else or when you lock your phone. With YouTube Premium, however, audio carries on in the background while you're in other apps and when the screen is off. Once you're a subscriber, the YouTube app even gets a new setting to control this—find it by tapping your avatar in the top right, choosing *Settings*, *Background and downloads*, and then *Playback*. Here, you can also restrict background playback to headphones or external speakers only. This perk extends to YouTube Music as well, so you can keep the songs (or podcasts) going while you've got your phone locked or while you're using other apps. You'll be supporting creators [image: Part of your subscription fee goes directly to your favorite Minecraft YouTubers.] Part of your subscription fee goes directly to your favorite Minecraft YouTubers. (David Nield/) You don't need to worry about creators missing out if you switch to YouTube Premium—in fact, you're doing them a favor. Every time you watch a monetized video, a small slice of your subscription money goes to the creator, so the more you watch a YouTuber's videos, the more money they get. That's good, because they need to eat, too. YouTube doesn't share detailed metrics about how much money creators earn, but based on anecdotal evidence, YouTube Premium seems to benefit the people behind the videos more than regular YouTube does. While overall income from YouTube Premium is low, it's much higher in terms of revenue-per-viewer. Granted, YouTube Premium isn't for everyone. But for the power users out there, it's definitely worth considering.

    The environmental impact of watching a movie might surprise you

    Summary
    [image: Energy spent watching your favorite movies.] Energy spent watching your favorite movies. (infographic by Sara Chodosh/) Nostalgic about browsing at Blockbuster? Don't be. Of all the ways to view a film at home, driving to a store to rent a copy consumes by far the most energy. It's not exactly a Shyamalan twist to learn that gas-­guzzling vehicles are bad for the environment. But what if we told you that streaming uses as much juice as getting a flick in the mail, old-school ­ Netflix-​style? An hour of streaming equals just over a week of light from a 10-watt LED bulb. The networks that supply zippy internet don’t run on movie magic—­everything you do online has a carbon footprint. The above chart shows where each viewing method draws its power. ------------------------------ *This article was originally published in the Summer 2019 Make It Last issue of* Popular Science.

    Last week in tech: The supreme smartphone, Apple's credit card, and Android 10

    Summary
    [image: You can almost smell the cotton candy vape when looking at this photo.] You can almost smell the cotton candy vape when looking at this photo. (Supreme/) Choosing a cellphone used to be a lot more fun. Before the dawn of the smartphone, aesthetics played a much bigger part of the decision-making process. Did you want a shiny, pink Sanyo Katana flip phone? Or maybe a translucent blue Kyocera candy bar? Now we labor over important-but-boring stats like screen resolution and battery capacity in milliamps. This week, however, streetwear company Supreme "dropped" its upcoming branded burner phone, and it felt a little like old times. On paper, the phone has stats that are one step up from something you'd get out of a claw machine at the arcade. The Verge suspects that it's a rebranded Zoey 2.4 phone, which means it has a 2.4-inch screen and 128 MB of storage built-in. But, like just about every Supreme product, the real appeal is in the hype. Anyone in the know who sees that logo will know that you managed to get your hands on a limited edition thing and now you're willing to put up with its insane limitations in the name of fashion and hype. It's like wearing really uncomfortable shoes. Sure, they make your feet bleed and they'll disintegrate if you step in a puddle, but they'll get you a lot of Instagram likes. There’s no pricing information on the Supreme phone just yet, but chances are it will sell out before you can get one, and then it will cost a huge sum on the secondary market. If you don’t get one, however, I think my Kyocera candy bar is still kicking around here somewhere. It has roughly the same specs. Just in case you were tied up in all the Supreme phone hype, here’s a recap of the tech and gadget news you need to know about from this week. Listen to the latest episode the Techathlon podcast This week’s episode of your favorite technology-based game show podcast dives into crucial topics like serious security breaches, the future of biohacking, and the inherent risks of living in a connected home. You’ll never look at your smart toaster without a hint of suspicion ever again. You can listen in the player above, add us on Stitcher, subscribe on iTunes, check us out on Anchor, and even follow along on Spotify. The Apple Card entered the real world Apple officially opened the application process for its new credit card to everyone this week. We took a deep dive into the card here, so you can decide whether or not you want to apply and use the it for all of your ill-advised weekend purchases. While the Apple Card is primarily a digital entity, it does come with a physical version made of titanium, complete with care instructions to keep it looking immaculate. Google officially named the next version of Android If you were hoping for an adorable, dessert-themed name for the next version of Android, you'll be disappointed to find out that it's officially called: Android 10. The sweet-themed names went alphabetically, so going with Android 10 is a lot easier than trying to think of a reasonable title that starts with the letter "Q." Though, some reports say internal Android team members are keeping with the tradition and calling the software Android Queen Cake. Take a look inside the new Porsche Taycan, the company's first all-electric vehicle [image: That's the kind of interior that makes you want to put on driving gloves like you're a cool actor from the '70s.] That's the kind of interior that makes you want to put on driving gloves like you're a cool actor from the '70s. (Porsche/) We don't know what the first electric Porsche looks like on the outside just yet, but the company released a picture of the cockpit to get fans excited for the September 4th release. As you may have guessed, it has both a steering wheel and a bunch of screens. There are pedals, too. That center console seems like a great place to rest the Popeye's chicken sandwich you bought because it went viral on Twitter this week. THX revamped its "Deep Note" sound There are few sounds as iconic as the THX Deep Note. The synthesized tone plays in THX theaters before movies to show off the audio prowess of the speakers. The new version is just over a minute long and integrates a bunch of movie sound effects before finally resolving in the familiar drone. Minecraft is getting a serious graphical overhaul Ray tracing is the buzzword in computer games at the moment. The latest generation of graphics processing chips enables games to create more realistic imagery thanks to tech that was previously only available to movie special-effects artists. Minecraft is an unlikely candidate for fancy graphics since the blocky visuals are so inherent to its charm, but the demo released by Nvidia this week is rather impressive.

    Essential travel kits for active pets

    Summary
    [image: Ultimate walkies.] Ultimate walkies. (Emerson Peters via Unsplash/) One of the biggest joys of having an animal companion is exploring the world together. Contemplating the vast landscape from a mountain peak, spending the day in a new city, or simply visiting friends are grand adventures with a pet by your side. Just like us, making sure basic needs are met and preparing for challenges are key to making the most finicky pets fun to hang out with on the road. These pet travel kits are great options to keep your focus on discovering new experiences—and enjoying every moment of the journey. [image: Don’t forget to pack Busy Bee.] Don’t forget to pack Busy Bee. (Amazon/) This handsome grey option has two insulated and water-resistant food carriers, holding up to 30 cups of food or treats (for a very good boy). A variety of zippered compartments, collapsible silicone food/water bowls, and a magnetic front pocket keep items neatly stored and easily accessible. It also features airline-friendly dimensions, a luggage sleeve, and detachable shoulder strap. [image: Frisbee included to work off those zoomies.] Frisbee included to work off those zoomies. (Amazon/) A blanket and plastic disc make this a nice gift idea and ideal to grab and go without searching for stuff to pack. The front flap of the bag unzips and folds down to become a feeding station with two collapsible silicone and dishwasher-safe bowls. The large food carrier bag is detachable and holds up to 3 pounds of food (about 12 cups), making it a good choice for smaller pets or shorter trips. [image: Your pup isn’t the only one with rugged good looks.] Your pup isn’t the only one with rugged good looks. (Amazon/) If your weekends are full of back-country trail-hiking and river-fording (or if you want it to appear that way), this handsome waterproof canvas bag is a must. It features ample food storage in two lined containers (enough for 30 cups), BPA-free silicone bowls, and room for your favorite towels and leashes. Available in Juniper Green or Midnight Blue with brass-finished hardware. [image: For when they won’t “leave it."] For when they won’t “leave it." (Amazon/) This kit has the basics from gauze to antiseptic to immediately care for your pet in the event of an accident. The best part is the manual explaining how to check vital signs and what to do in different scenarios, including choking, broken bones, and wounds. You can even open the kit while wearing gloves using the zipper extenders. [image: Inside the car AND inside the box.] Inside the car AND inside the box. (Amazon/) If you have a cat who loves to travel, congratulations! If not, having a portable litter box that folds up to a little bigger than a wallet can make trips more pleasant. Suitable for small and medium-sized pets, it is made out of nylon with a waterproof and washable PEVA lining. By adding a mat, it can even double as a bed.

    #ERROR!

    Summary
    (Credit: eveleen/shutterstock) Around the world, humans communicate with each other using nearly 7,000 distinct languages. But despite how different languages like English and Chinese are for example, we all use the same basic anatomy to talk. Our lips, tongues and the bones inside our mouths allow humans to make the noises of language. Now researchers have found that differences in the shape of the roof of the mouth influence how we pronounce vowel sounds. And the team says that these mi


    Summary
    When you stack up the most promising recent exoplanet finds, as illustrated here, it becomes clear none is Earth’s true twin. But even more habitable worlds may be out there waiting to be found. (Credit: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech) Earth is the only place in the universe where we know life exists. But with billions of other star systems out there, it might not be the best place for life. In a new study, astronomers modeled the potential for life on other watery planets and found some conditions t


    Summary
    Scientists recently dug into salt marshes and discovered abundant amounts of a"good guy gas" that helps cool Earth's climate. (Credit: JuneJ/shutterstock) The tangy smell of the sea may seem like nothing more than salt in the air, but in fact it comes courtesy of a specific chemical. And dimethyl sulfide, or simply DMS, not only defines that airy aroma, but it also helps cool the climate. In a study published Monday in the journal Nature Microbiology, researchers say they’ve discovered vast


    Summary
    (Credit: Odua Images/Shutterstock) A human’s genes are laid down at conception. A fetus’ heart, brain and other organs start to form five weeks later. At six months, an unborn child has most of its body parts. But there is one essential component missing: the helpful bacteria, often referred to as the microbiome, that will inhabit its gut, skin and other organs. Our first interactions with microbes set the stage for health throughout our lives. Babies’ microbiomes have been linked to hea


    Summary
    The image shows the first image acquired by the DLR-developed MASCAM camera system during Hayabusa2's descent, shortly after separation from the landing module at a height of 41 meters. (Credit: Jaumann et al., Science (2019)) The solar system is a crowded place. Earth may be the only planet with humans on it, but many worlds are home to robots — rovers and landers and orbiters, gathering data for astronomers. Asteroid (162173) Ryugu joined them last summer, and has been playing host to the

    Water scarcity: Five ways to avert a water crisis

    Summary
    In the coming decade, billions could face a critical shortage of water. Here's what we can do about it.

    Sharks and rays to be given new international protections

    Summary
    An estimated 100 million sharks are killed every year, many for shark fin soup.

    Amazon Fires: Why the rainforest helps fight climate change

    Summary
    Fires in the Amazon rainforest have prompted concern around the world.

    Extinction: Last chance to save 'rhinos of the oceans'

    Summary
    Sharks and rays pushed towards extinction by the shark fin trade are hot on the agenda at key wildlife talks.

    Nasa said to be investigating first allegation of a crime in space

    Summary
    The space agency is reportedly looking into an allegation against astronaut Anne McClain.

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