Power shift' needed to improve gender balance in energy research

    Summary
    Women still face significant barriers in forging successful and influential careers in UK energy research, a new high-level report has revealed.

    Special fibroblasts help pancreatic cancer cells evade immune detection

    Summary
    A subpopulation of fibroblasts called apCAFs can interact with the immune system to help pancreatic cancer cells avoid detection. Understanding how they work can be key in developing therapeutics for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    The challenges of North American specialty cut flowers

    Summary
    Cut flower production in the United States and Canada has increased in recent years. Due to this resurgence, more information is needed regarding current production and postharvest issues.

    No direct link between North Atlantic currents, sea level along New England coast

    Summary
    A new study clarifies what influence major currents in the North Atlantic have on sea level along the northeastern United States.

    Small cluster of neurons is off-on switch for mouse songs

    Summary
    Researchers have isolated a cluster of neurons in a mouse's brain that are crucial to making the squeaky, ultrasonic 'songs' a male mouse produces when courting a potential mate.

    Top stories: The science of false confessions, transforming blood types, and Brazil’s war on drugs

    Summary
    This week’s top Science news

    WHO unexpectedly declines, again, to call Ebola outbreak a global emergency

    Summary
    Despite disease’s spread to Uganda, a World Health Organization panel says declaration would hurt more than help

    This diseased spine may hold clues to early dog-human relationship

    Summary
    Study debunks popular archaeological idea, but reveals something equally interesting about our oldest friends

    NIH should ask both institutions and investigators to report sexual harassment findings, advisory group says

    Summary
    Proposed policies would go further than NSF's, but could face legal obstacles

    Russian geneticist answers challenges to his plan to make gene-edited babies

    Summary
    Denis Rebrikov will use CRISPR on the same gene a China team did, but he has a different rationale

    More than 260 dead dolphins found on Gulf Coast since February

    Summary
    Scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are investigating why bottlenose dolphins are stranding themselves at an unusually high rate in the Northern Gulf of Mexico this year

    Hubble image showcases supernovae-filled spiral galaxy

    Summary
    The picture perfect spiral galaxy NGC 4051, positioned in the constellation of Ursa Major, is speckled with the bright flashes of dying stars.

    Gut bacteria reveal which lemurs are most vulnerable to deforestation

    Summary
    By analyzing the makeup of lemurs' gut microbiome, scientists can predict which species are most vulnerable to deforestation.

    Dockworkers' dietary changes reflect the decline of the Roman Empire

    Summary
    New analysis of ancient animal and human remains suggests the diets of the working class in the city of Portus shifted as Rome fell into decline.

    Bitcoin, Las Vegas have the same size carbon footprint

    Summary
    The latest audit of Bitcoin's carbon footprint suggests the digital currency is responsible for 22 megatons of CO2 emissions annually.

    How to find what software your phone is running and why it matters

    Summary
    [image: Updates automatically appear on your smartphone, but sometimes you may want to check manually.] Updates automatically appear on your smartphone, but sometimes you may want to check manually. (David Nield/) Soon after you bring a shiny new smartphone home, you'll start receiving a continuous stream of software updates from app makers, as well as operating system upgrades from Apple and Google. It may seem simple, but you probably have questions. Maybe you're wondering how to find out what version of Android or iOS your phone is running, and why it matters. Or perhaps you're not sure what you have to do to get the new iOS on your iPhone, or why your Android phone has to wait so long to get the latest software. We've got those answers. And let's be clear: operating system updates are not to be neglected. Not only do they bring new features to your handset, like better battery management and new notification options, but they carry critical security and stability improvements each time. Android [image: Checking for updates on a Google Pixel phone.] Checking for updates on a Google Pixel phone. (David Nield/) Android is actually made up of several different pieces of software that are all referred to as "Android" for convenience's sake. At the most fundamental level is the Android Open Source Project (AOSP), developed by Google but released as open-source software with publicly available code, and free for anyone to use. Then you have the Google Mobile Services (GMS) bundle. It's not open source, but Google licenses it for free to its hardware partners in return for all the extra users Google gets in return. GMS includes Google Search, Gmail, the Chrome browser, YouTube, and—crucially—the Google Play Store. When you buy an Android phone, you're usually getting AOSP and GMS, plus whatever extra apps and flourishes the manufacturer has chosen to add—so Android looks slightly different on phones from Samsung, LG, OnePlus, Sony, and others. If you want to know what a device looks like without GMS, the best examples are Amazon Fire tablets. Instead these come with Amazon's own app store, and you can't officially run Google apps on them (though there are ways around this). With Android catering to so many different shapes and sizes of devices, and with phone makers adding their own code on top of the AOSP framework, the platform has had fragmentation problems—the latest version of Android doesn't always arrive on each manufacturer's device at the same time. [image: Checking for updates on a Samsung phone.] Checking for updates on a Samsung phone. (David Nield/) To combat fragmentation, Google has tried various ways to make it easier for hardware partners to update different bits of Android at a time. It has also shifted more responsibility to the Google Play Store, so phones can get the latest security scanning updates and the newest versions of Google's apps and services, even if they're not running the freshest version of Android. What all that means is your Android phone will be running a particular version of Android with a specific iteration of the phone manufacturer's software on top. On Samsung phones that'd be the Samsung One UI, for example, while OnePlus calls their software OxygenOS. To check what version of Android you're running, open up Settings, then tap *About Phone* and look under *Android version* to see how up-to-date your phone is. You'll handle updates in a separate screen: from Settings tap *System*, *System update*, and *Check for update* to see if new software is available, but you should get an alert when an update has arrived and is ready to install. We can't take you through the process for every Android phone out there, but it should be similar for whatever model you're using. On Samsung phones, for instance, head to Settings, then tap *About phone*, followed by *Software information*, to see which versions of One UI and Android you're running. Again, update prompts should appear automatically, but you can run a manual check for a newer Android iteration by tapping *Software update*, then *Download and install* from Settings. Some phone makers deliver Android updates faster than others, so if you really want to know how long you'll be waiting, your best bet is to contact the company directly, or at least browse its support forums. The Pixel phones, developed by Google itself, are typically first in line for the major Android update that happens every year. iOS [image: Checking for updates on an iPhone.] Checking for updates on an iPhone. (David Nield/) Apple has an easier time pushing iOS updates out into the world because it doesn't have multiple hardware partners to worry about, and it simultaneously develops both the software and the hardware it's going to run. For that reason, iOS always beats Android when it comes to quickly getting more users on the latest version. In fact, Apple regularly deauthorizes older versions of iOS so that once you've upgraded, you can't hack your iPhone or iPad to go back to an earlier iteration. As well as refreshing iOS every year, Apple also updates all of its built-in apps—including Mail, Safari, and Apple Maps—at the same time. So, when a new version of iOS arrives, you'll see a host of updates to the Apple apps on your phone, too. With each new version, Apple sometimes leaves behind some of its older devices, which remain on the previous version for the rest of their digital lives. This wasn't the case with iOS 12, which ran on every device iOS 11 could run on, but it's something to watch out for. To see if you're up-to-date on iOS, open up Settings, then tap *General* and *About*. The current iOS version number will be listed under *Software Version*. You will get a notification when a new version of iOS is available, but if you want to check manually, tap *General*, then *Software Update* inside Settings. Keep the *Automatic Updates* option switched on if you want iOS to update itself overnight without prompting you each time.

    TaylorMade's new drivers start out too fast for the rules of golf

    Summary
    [image: Speed Injected Twist Face sounds like a Batman villain, but it's actually golf tech.] Speed Injected Twist Face sounds like a Batman villain, but it's actually golf tech. (TaylorMade/) If you’ve never played golf with an old, wooden driver, it’s something you should try if you can. It can feel like you’re swinging an old wooden doorknob at the end of a stick—the sweet spot is tiny and you don’t get the satisfying metal thwack you hear from every tee at the range—but it’ll serve as a nice reminder of just how far golf club tech has come, especially when it comes to drivers. Golf's governing bodies have rules in place to prevent equipment from lending too much help to a golfer's game. For its latest M-series drivers, TaylorMade is actually manufacturing the clubs beyond the limits of the rules and then tweaking each individual club as it comes off the line so it can sneak under the restrictions. TaylorMade calls its new tech speed injection and it involves inserting epoxy through one or both of the small portholes in the club’s face to adjust its stiffness in specific ways. Doing so affects a variable called coefficient of restitution. Essentially, there’s a limit on how efficiently a club can transfer its energy to the ball on impact. The goal is to keep the ball’s speed within a realistic range as it comes off the face of the club. Making faces A golf ball only stays on the club’s face for a fraction of a second, but that small amount of time determines the fate of the shot. “We’re trying to maximize the efficiency of the collision,” says Brian Bazzel, VP of Product Creation for TaylorMade. The USGA tests this variable with a pendulum-like device that measures the spring-like effect that occurs when the ball hits a club face. Despite its metal construction, the face of a driver acts a bit like a trampoline, springing the ball away after flexing at impact. “The pendulum is dropped against the face and it measures the time the ball is in contact with it in microseconds. The limit is 239 microseconds, but they give you about 18 microseconds of tolerance.” This test measures a variable called characteristic time, and it replaced an older test, which measured the absolute coefficient of energy transfer. The 18-microsecond tolerance allows for the variability that inevitably comes with factory production. Tiny variations in the materials or the process can have a noticeable effect on performance. So, instead of undershooting the limit and hoping the tolerance catches the outliers, TaylorMade created a system that measures the variable as the very last step in its assembly. Almost all of the finished clubs—TaylorMade says the exception rate is about 0.3 percent—then receive a very small injection of epoxy into a foam reservoir at the bottom of the club. It’s usually a fraction of a gram on each side, but it can go up to two grams depending on the performance. Once the epoxy is in place, TaylorMade checks it again to make sure it's compliant. The result is a line of clubs that are consistently pinned to the upper limit of performance. The physics of the club face complicates things a bit. A perfectly flat face would put the springiest spot—referred to as the sweet spot—in the geometric center of the metal slab. The faces on TaylorMade’s drivers, however, are curved and also shaped in order to influence the way the ball flies off the club. According to the company, the automated systems can detect these variables and automatically address them with the injections. Thickness also has an effect on its performance. A thinner face typically results in a faster ball speed after impact if you hit the sweet spot in the middle, but then you run into other issues like durability and speed that exceeds the allowed limits. TaylorMade addresses some of those issues with an inverted cone structure on the back of the club face, as well as the new speed injections. The entire club comes into play, even though you’re only really using the face to hit the ball. “Because of all the bits and pieces that come together in a driver,” says Bazzel, “typical drivers have a bell curve when it comes to performance. You set your targets down to account for variation.” This process effectively flattens that bell curve without having to totally start over with drivers that were otherwise finished but didn’t pass the test. What about the thwack? Sound is one of the crucial parts of a golf club—in fact, players typically won't use a club with a bad impact noise, even if it performs well. According to TaylorMade, adding this vibration damping epoxy doesn't have a negative tuning effect on the overall sound of the club. I took the new M5 out on the range and found that to be true. I also found the club extremely long off the tee, which isn't surprising considering the extent to which TaylorMade has gone to close the performance gap between the equipment guidelines. Even shots hit on the heel or the toe of the club feel relatively solid thanks to the club’s large sweet spot. Still, you’re better off just putting a good strike on the ball if you want it to end up in the fairway. Without practice, faster ball speed off the club face just means a longer walk into the woods to find your ball.

    14 Uber and Lyft tips to make your trips easier

    Summary
    [image: Some extra advice: Let them confirm your identity first.] Some extra advice: Let them confirm your identity first. (Uber/) Uber and Lyft have helped transform the way we get around via cab, and have even put the idea of car ownership to the test in certain places. These apps have become popular, in part, to their simplicity and ease of use—just tap to ride—but even though almost everyone has them installed, not everyone will have dug deeply into all the features the ride-hailing apps have to offer. General tips *1. Get away from the crowds* If you're just leaving a gig, a sporting event, or a busy restaurant, walking a couple of blocks can make pick-up a lot easier for both you and your driver. Stepping away from others will make you easier to spot on the sidewalk and you won't have to try to find your car in a crush of a dozen others. Plus, you'll get a bit of exercise while you're waiting for your ride to arrive. *2. Find a landmark* Another way to minimize the risk of a pick-up mix-up is to send your Uber or Lyft driver to a recognized landmark rather than a nondescript address (again, a little bit of walking might be needed). Try a park, a well-known hotel, or even a shopping mall—anywhere that's easy to find with plenty of room for your driver to pull up. *3. Schedule rides for the future* One of the most useful features of both Uber and Lyft is the ability to schedule future rides. In the Uber app, once you've chosen a destination and car type, press the small clock icon next to *Request* to set a time and date (up to 30 days ahead). If you're using Lyft, set your destination, then press *Schedule* to choose a time and date (up to seven days ahead). *4. Use a friend's phone* If your phone is lost or dead, you can still access Uber and Lyft on a friend's handset via the magic of the mobile web. Head to either the Uber or Lyft) website on your friend's phone, enter your details as prompted, and you'll have access to a limited number of the regular features—including the option to request a ride from your current location. Uber tips *1. Sign up for a subscription* Uber offers a subscription called Ride Pass, though at the time of writing it hasn't yet rolled out across the entire U.S. If it's live in your city, tap *Ride Pass* from the app menu to pay a flat $25 per month to prevent the price of your ride from being affected by weather or surge pricing. Uber calculates its Ride Pass rates based on historical data, making it easier to budget your travel costs. *2. Look after your family* If you're responsible for young people and want to make sure they can always get home, add them to your Uber family by picking *Set up your family* in the app settings. People you specify can then use the Uber app as normal, but can charge their rides to your account. You can add babysitters, personal assistants, and anyone you like, really. *3. Split the cost* Sharing the cost of a trip on Uber is simple if every passenger has the Uber app installed (if they don't, you can send them a prompt to do so). When a ride is in progress, swipe up from the bottom of your phone screen to see the trip details, then press *Split Fare*. Enter the names of your fellow riders or their cell numbers to prompt them to pay up. *4. Go through Google Maps* If you're more comfortable using Google Maps to find your way around, that's fine. Just pick your destination on the map, choose *Directions*, and you'll see Uber listed when you tap the "ride" icon (a person with a raised hand). Doing so will send you seamlessly into the Uber app. At the time of writing, Uber isn't available through Apple Maps, though. *5. Call an Uber with your voice* If you're at home, you can call an Uber using either an Amazon Echo or a Google Home smart speaker. You'll need to connect Uber first (instructions for Alexa here and Google Assistant here), and have the app on your phone. Once that's done, just ask for a ride to a particular place. You can also keep tabs on your car's location while it's on the way. Lyft tips [image: Lyft lets you separate business and pleasure, which might be good if you're still preparing a presentation at the last minute.] Lyft lets you separate business and pleasure, which might be good if you're still preparing a presentation at the last minute. (Deposit Photos/) *1. Sign up for an All-Access Plan* Lyft offers a monthly subscription service called the All-Access Plan, which lets you pay up-front to lock in a fixed price for rides. A payment of $299 every 30 days gets you 30 rides up to $15 each, with 5% off any extras, an agreement you can cancel at any time. From the Lyft app menu, choose *Notifications,* then *Learn More* under *All-Access Plan* to sign up. *2. Add your preferred pronouns* Lyft recently rolled out the ability to specify your preferred pronouns inside the official apps for Android and iOS, and your driver will be able to see them once you book a trip. From the app menu, tap your avatar at the top, then choose *Add your pronouns* and pick from the list. This is optional, and you can pick *Prefer not to say* rather than one of the options. *3. Mix business and pleasure* If you need to bill rides back to your employer, Lyft makes it simple to do. Press *Business Profile* in Settings to set one up, and you'll be able to distinguish between work and personal rides. When you need to put in a claim, open the app menu, then go to *Ride History*, *Business*, and *Export*, and you'll get an expense report emailed to you or your manager. *4. Sync your calendar* Give Lyft a little more help by syncing it with the calendar on your phone—meaning the Lyft app will be able to look up details, such as the address of a party you're at, without you having to enter them manually. The next time you request a ride, pick *Add from calendar* under the destination search box, and the app will ask you to sync a particular calendar. *5. Call a Lyft with your voice* Lyft works with Echo and Google Home speakers, just like Uber. You'll need the Lyft app on your phone and connected to Alexa (instructions here) or Google Assistant (instructions here), and once it is, you'll be able to ask for a ride to a specific place, a fare estimate to a destination, how far away your driver currently is, and more.

    More electric cars means more mining, but recycling could help minimize the impact

    Summary
    [image: The Uyuni salt flat in Bolivia is a critical source of lithium.] The Uyuni salt flat in Bolivia is a critical source of lithium. (Diego Delso/) Some environmentalist often imagine a future where electric cars put oil companies out of business. Firms would stop injecting known carcinogens into the ground to break up the layer of hard, shale rock hiding stores of fuel, and they would no longer plumb the ocean depths for oil, letting sticky black goo leak into the sea. To get to that future —one where we don’t need to dig oil out of the ground—companies will need to dig a whole lot of metal out instead, and that’s potentially bad news for people who work in mines or live nearby. Like solar panels and wind turbines, electric car batteries are made from some of the most hard-to-get metals on Earth—dysprosium, neodymium, manganese, cobalt, and lithium — the list of materials reads like Tony Stark's shopping list. EV manufacturers are going to need a lot more of these metals if we are to build enough electric cars to keep warming to 1.5 degrees C, the stated goal of the Paris Climate Agreement. If countries took the radical action needed to meet this target — an improbably optimistic scenario — demand for cobalt and lithium would exceed the current supply by 2022 and 2023 respectively, according to a new book, *Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement*, that investigates the obstacles to preventing catastrophic climate change. [image: The Tesla Model 3.] The Tesla Model 3. (Tesla/) "We only mine a relatively small amount of lithium today. In 2023, we'll be using more for batteries for EVs and storage than what we mine today," said Elsa Dominish, a senior research consultant at the Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology Sydney and a co-author of the book's chapter on metals used in clean energy. She explained that companies will need to come up with a lot more cobalt and lithium to meeting the growing demand for EVs. To limit the amount of mining that needs to be done, companies could recycle old EV batteries. "We *could* recover approximately 95 percent of lithium from recycling with our current technologies, but usually we don't choose to do so," Dominish said. "Only a small amount is currently being recovered, with recyclers only recovering higher value metals such as cobalt and nickel." As EV batteries only last around ten years, used batteries offer an abundant source of lithium. This is key, because the next generation of EV batteries will likely be lithium-sulfur batteries, which will use more lithium than lithium-ion batteries, the current industry standard. Dominish and her colleagues modeled how aggressive recycling would shape demand for mined cobalt and lithium. First, they estimated how much of each metal will be needed by 2050 to stave of catastrophic climate change. Then, they gauged demand for mined cobalt and lithium if companies recycled as much of each metal as possible. Predictably, recycling would radically reduce the need for mining. Finally, researchers projected demand for each metal if companies both recycled old batteries and embraced lithium-sulfur batteries. As shown, this would drive down demand for mined cobalt, which isn't needed in lithium-sulfur batteries, but it would drive up demand for mined lithium. [image: Demand for mined cobalt and lithium by 2050 if countries do what’s needed to keep warming to 1.5 degrees C.] Demand for mined cobalt and lithium by 2050 if countries do what’s needed to keep warming to 1.5 degrees C. (Institute for Sustainable Futures/Earthworks/) Recycling could take a couple forms. On the one hand, firms can take old electric car batteries that can’t hold as much energy as they once did and repurpose them as home batteries that store electricity generated by rooftop solar panels. One the other hand, companies can simply extract the metals from old batteries and use them to make new batteries. Firms are already doing this with cobalt, but not with lithium. More recycling would mean less mining, and that's good, because mining is fraught with risks. Currently, most of the world's cobalt comes from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where individual miners, tens of thousands of whom are children, gather around 20 percent of the cobalt produced. These miners, known as *creuseurs*, might spend all day gathering cobalt by hand only to sell their haul to traders for a dollar or two. Their job is physically taxing, and miners typically lack protective gear like gloves and masks, so they continually inhale cobalt dust, which can cause fatal lung disease. As one miner told Amnesty International, "We all have problems with our lungs, and pain all over our bodies." Said another, a child, "There is lots of dust, it is very easy to catch colds, and we hurt all over." [image: The Salar de Olaroz lithium mine in Argentina as viewed from space.] The Salar de Olaroz lithium mine in Argentina as viewed from space. (Planet Labs, Inc./) Lithium mining doesn't have the same track record of exploitation, but it's not without risks. On the salt flats of Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile, miners draw lithium-rich water from deep underground, and they pour it into shallow ponds where the water evaporates, leaving the lithium behind. In so doing, mining companies are using up groundwater that is desperately needed in the arid desert region. Deep-sea mining offers an alternate source of both cobalt and lithium, and one that poses fewer threats to humans, but this too is risky. Ripping up the ocean floor endangers creatures that make their home on the seabed, and the noise from mining tools can wreak havoc on whales, dolphins, sharks, and turtles swimming nearby. By recycling old EV batteries, companies could limit the need for destructive mining, but recycling isn't a cure-all. Mining firms will still need to dig up a lot of cobalt, lithium, and other metals in the shift to EVs. In a recent report commissioned by Earthworks, Dominish and her colleagues urged manufacturers to source raw materials from responsible mining operations, specifically those that have been certified by a third party. They also point to guidance on how to buy metals from individual miners while also helping to guard the health and safety of those miners. “Recycling can meet some of the demand,” Dominish said. “However, we will need some new mining, but it needs to be done responsibly.” *Jeremy Deaton writes for Nexus Media, a syndicated newswire covering climate, energy, policy, art and culture. You can follow him @deaton_jeremy.*

    Listen to the soothing sounds of an explosive ASMR experiment

    Summary
    [image: Jacob Strickling, an Australian science teacher, has ASMR down to a science.] Jacob Strickling, an Australian science teacher, has ASMR down to a science. (Digg/) Whether you think videos of people whispering into high-quality microphones are creepy or soothing, you’ve probably never seen ASMR content as explosive as this. Jacob Strickling, an Australian science teacher who runs the YouTube channel “Make Science Fun,” often does “Tiny Science Videos” using small lab equipment. This time, he set up some highly sensitive microphones next to his beakers. Strickling whispers softly into one of the microphones, explaining the experiment before dropping a chunk of calcium carbide into a tiny beaker filled with water. The reaction, which produces acetylene gas, creates a satisfying sizzle. The soothing scientist then lights the reaction on fire, and the microphone picks up the soft pops of the burning gas. An acronym for the not-quite-scientific term "Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response," ASMR first appeared on YouTube with a "whispering" channel in 2009. Now, the Internet's bursting with countless videos, and multiple channels on YouTube devoted exclusively to this topic have gained millions of subscribers. ASMR is a little-studied response that some people report having to certain sounds; the best thing to compare it to is the sensation of goosebumps or chills you might get while listening to particularly rousing music. It's a new subject of research, but early studies on this phenomenon suggest it may indeed have some kind of calming effect. The goal of ASMR is to relax viewers through quiet entertainment, whether it comes in the form of the sounds of a pretend doctor's visit, someone playing with objects that make interesting noises, or even gentle singing. Most creators want to make their videos so soothing that viewers will fall asleep, so it's no surprise that the majority of people who watch them do so at bedtime.

    Could the Big Bang be Wrong?

    Summary
    A short history of the universe since the time of the Big Bang. We can directly observe more than 13 billion years of change, but the beginning itself is an enduring mystery. (Credit: ESA) The Big Bang is the defining narrative of modern cosmology: a bold declaration that our universe had a beginning and has a finite age, just like the humans who live within it. That finite age, in turn, is defined by the evidence that universe is expanding (again, and unfortunately, many of us are familiar

    Light Pollution From Satellites Will Get Worse. But How Much?

    Summary
    An artist's depiction of space junk. (Credit: ESA) SpaceX’s ambitious Starlink project could eventually launch more than 10,000 satellites into orbit and rewrite the future of the internet. But Elon Musk’s company has been taking heat from the astronomical community after an initial launch in late May released the first 60 satellites. The 500 pound (227 kg) satellites were clearly visible in Earth’s night sky, inspiring concern that they could increase light pollution, interfere with ra

    Did Dark Matter Punch a Hole in the Milky Way?

    Summary
    An artist's rendition shows the dark matter halo (blue) that astronomers believe surrounds the Milky Way. (Credit: ESO/L. Calçada) A massive clump of dark matter may have plowed through a conga line of stars streaming around the Milky Way, according to new research presented Tuesday at the 234th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society. The research, led by Ana Bonaca of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, reveals a curious abnormality in an otherwise uniform stream of s

    As the Hunt Drags Out, Physicists Start Searching for the Lightest Dark Matter

    Summary
    The Large Underground Xenon experiment in South Dakota is one of many projects searching for dark matter and coming up empty. (Credit: LUX Collaboration) Dark matter, the invisible material that so far shows itself only through the pull of its gravity, was first proposed nearly a century ago. It took another half-century to truly ignite the physics community. But at this point, a plethora of highly advanced projects have gone hunting for dark matter and come up empty. Now scientists arou

    As Pollinator Populations Drop, Hoverflies May Offer Britain Hope

    Summary
    A hoverfly on a cluster of yellow mustard flowers. (Credit: Dave Hansche/Shutterstock) Billions of hoverflies from Europe descend on southern Britain each spring. The black and yellow striped bugs are no more than half an inch in length but make the long trek to Britain for the summer. Once they arrive, the hoverflies pollinate flowers and lay eggs. The fly populations have remained stable unlike those of honeybees and other insects, which have dropped in recent years, researchers find i

    Cryoegg' to explore under Greenland Ice Sheet

    Summary
    UK sensors placed under the Greenland Ice Sheet will monitor how its glaciers slide towards the ocean.

    The family-of-four living off grid

    Summary
    Two former vets from Essex and their children are showing others how it is possible to live self-sufficiently.

    Climate Change: Why are thousands of species facing extinction?

    Summary
    The Earth's biodiversity is decreasing at a faster rate than ever before. Why is this happening?

    Saving sharks: One woman's mission to protect the hammerhead

    Summary
    Marine biologist Ilena Zanella vowed to save the shark after diving with them off Costa Rica.

    Plastic pollution: Bangor divers cleaning up the seabed

    Summary
    A group of divers are taking beach clean ups to the next level by diving for litter under water.

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